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The Nature and Reasons of ISIS

Sayed Mahdi Alizadeh Mousavi

Phd in political science

Iran, Qom,

Introduction

Perhaps no period in history can be found in which Islamic world and muslim countries plagued by extremist groups and internal “takfiris” on such a level as now. It can be said without exaggeration, that almost more of the muslim countries are somehow suffering with extremism and takfiri groups today. In Africa, different groups like Ansar al-Sunna, Ansar al-Sharia, Boko Haram, Ansar Beit-ul-Moqaddas, extremist parties like Al-Noor, Al-Fazilah etc. are active and in Asia different groups like Sepah-e-Sahaba, Lashkar-e-Jhangavi, Taliban, Daesh (ISIS), al-Nusra Front, al-Qaeda, Fathul Islam, Hizb ut-Tahrir and on top of them ISIS is operating. As a result of such a situation, much of the power and stamina of muslim countries is being consumed to cope these groups and the Islamic world has suffered tremendous damage in different areas of politics, belief, economics and society.

In the meantime, the real question is what is the way to confront these groups?  Is military power the only way to deal with these groups, or alongside other aspects and dimensions of these groups should also be considered?

From the perspective of this article, although military power can slow down the activity of extremist and takfiri groups, but it can’t eliminate them completely. What is it that if you look at the nature of these groups, most of them have a religious background and their main driving force is belief and religion and it is belief and perception which provides necessary motivation for activities like suicide bombings.  Accordingly, along with physical and military confrontation with these groups, scientific and intellectual addressing is also necessary. Although it seems that the second part is more important than the first one.

Meanwhile, the first step for the scientific, intellectual and ideological confrontation with extremist and takfiri groups is the identification of their ideology and thinking on the one hand and the causes of their creation on the other hand. On this basis, intellectual thinkers of the Islamic world are soft war officers to cope with phenomena such as ISIS and they have, no doubt, a major role in coping with them.

ISIS, a growing phenomenon

ISIS has a special position amongst all the extremist and takfiri groups in Islamic world. This group succeeded to leave direct impact not only on the Muslim world but on the whole world both geographically and intellectually in very short time. Without exaggeration, ISIS has proved its presence in the whole world by performing operations. Africa, Asia, Europe and other places have been threatened by ISIS and today ISIS is not limited in specific geographical limits but this phenomenon though not physically, but ideologically has been expanded to most places of the world and its ideological borders are expanding every day. After al-Qaeda which succeeded in past one or two decades to find audience for itself in various countries, today ISIS has achieved the same position and considering its naked violence and extreme views, has created more dangerous and critical situation than al-Qaeda.

Based on the items mentioned above, following points are of great importance:

  1. Unlike many who consider ISIS as only a superficial movement without any scientific backing, this group by expanding rapidly all over the world has proved that it has charming basis and views which succeeded to recruit a significant number of volunteers from all over the world.
  2. The growth of ISIS thought in the world has shown that this movement can’t be eliminated by merely military confrontation but scientific and ideological confrontation is also necessary.
  3. On the other hand, apart from identifying the thoughts and then confronting ideologically, causes of growth and expansion of this thinking must be studied. What is that regardless of ideological bases, other causes and factors have also played a key role in the growth and development of ISIS and their knowledge can be effective in the treatment of this deep wound.

Above mentioned points show that two issues are important in confronting ISIS as necessary preludes and without them it is impossible to cope with this growing phenomenon.

First: Nature of ISIS

Second: Causes of ISIS

Studies related to ISIS identification

Looking at the studies and literature about identification of ISIS, it can be seen that the scope of research about ISIS has been a historical approach. The growing trend of ISIS and its historical roots has been studied. That is, the relationship of this phenomenon with groups such as al-Qaeda or Tanzim Qaidat alJihad fi Bilad alRafidayn in Iraq and its evolution in Syria has been considered. Part of the literature of this area is also related to the identification of personalities of this group and the life of its commanders and leaders, trying to determine their political, ideological and intellectual affiliations with current movements.

Another batch of studies about ISIS has been performed based on chronological or narrative approach towards ISIS which includes explaining crimes, news related to this group in different areas of the world and the media and propaganda activities of this group etc. which has almost media and journalistic nature.

Another set of debates about ISIS have pointed out merely a part of ISIS beliefs and opinions like monotheism and polytheism and faith and heresy, and incidentally, cases which make this thinking charming, have been less focused. And meanwhile the impact and influence of other Islamic thought on ISIS thought has been neglected.

Nature of ISIS

There is no doubt that to cope with any phenomenon, we first need to fully understand it. Phenomena also have different dimensions and whatever scope of the influence of a phenomenon is more, it will be more dimensions and angles. Nevertheless, effective intellectual and social movements always have dominant reasoning in between their views. Reasoning which determines the real nature of a thought, and maximum focus to identify a phenomenon should also be considered in that dominant reasoning. For example, a movement like PJAK in Turkey has more nationalistic background and considering this feature more than anything else can be effective in interacting and conflicting with it. In some of the movements, political sector is crucial and should be considered.

In the case of ISIS, first of all it should be noted that what is the most important intellectual feature of ISIS? And what are those teachings from which ISIS gains most benefit in theoretical field? The most important claim of ISIS is to establish an Islamic government, a government which according to ISIS, is based on Islamic principles and be capable to implement Islam in society. At the center of this thought, discussion of Islamism is located. That is, ISIS seeks to promote this thought that it wants to save the world from ignorance and propel it towards Islamic teachings and ultimately formation of a Muslim community. Therefore, the most important feature or signifier of ISIS discourse is Islam. Thus, the first step in understanding ISIS is to understand the Islam which ISIS is promoting. As mentioned, no much scientific work has been done in this area and if either, was descriptive and didn’t have critical glance.

Based on the above, the first step in combating ISIS is accurate recognition of Islam which ISIS is promoting. It is only the exact recognition of this Islam which can reveal its charms towards social masses especially youngsters and provide basis for intellectual confrontation with it.

Due to limitations, we merely want to introduce some intellectual indices of ISIS Islam, so that it could provide a ground for more scientific and critic activities in this area.

Before discussing ideological basis of ISIS, attention on following preparations is necessary:

  1. ISIS have benefited from Islamic concepts to influence Muslim masses. Teachings such as monotheism, faith, tradition, and against them polytheism, atheism and innovation, as these concepts are well known to the Muslims and the most important of Islamic teachings.
  2. Although the teachings which ISIS has used in defining Islam are very similar to Islamic teachings literally, but conceptually they are deviant interpretation of these teachings, and because of this it is difficult for masses especially youth to differentiate between ISIS Islam and real Islam, and this itself is one of the factors involved in misleading of youth in this area.
  3. ISIS by different techniques, more than anything else relies on the emotions of its audience, and before focusing on rationality and rational means, absorbs the audience towards its viewpoints by inciting their religious sentiments. Young people, who sacrifice themselves for ISIS interests, rather than having a religious and rational justification on their act, justify their actions by faith based on feelings and emotions.
  4. Religious leadership of ISIS is in the hand of jihadist leaders and charisma rather than religious scholars and ‘ulama, so that according to ISIS, moderate scholars are complacent and courtier. Many of religious scholars like shaheed ramadhan al-Bouti have been killed by them because of opposing ISIS, even extremist personalities such as Adnan Aror[1] which was considered one of the main ideologues of ISIS has lost his position among ISIS.
  5. ISIS searches most of its audience in between youth, young people who have a religious orientation, but disillusioned with the West civilization, exhausted of injustice in their communities, and are mentally prepared to protest and react. Especially that ISIS has tried to boost emotional aspects of its invitation based on its own interpretation of Islam.

Intellectual foundations of ISIS

As mentioned, the prevailing side of ISIS ideology is religious and they try to obtain their goals by using Islamic teachings. In general, it can be said that ISIS has presented a deviant interpretation of Islamic teachings and has confiscated Islamic principles and teachings for its interests. Such a situation has not only caused recruitment and attraction of young people in the Islamic world, but also has sparked a kind of Islamophobia and anti-Islamic activities, while on the other hand enemies of Islam are also trying to present ISIS Islam as accepted Islam among the Muslim.

Intellectual foundations of ISIS can be divided into two main categories:

First: traditional intellectual foundations,

Second: modern intellectual foundations.

۱٫ Traditional intellectual foundations

Traditional intellectual foundations mean that ideas and thinking which ISIS has inherited from its traditional Salafists. These beliefs can be summarized in three important axes:

A). monotheism and polytheism: ISIS interpretation about monotheism and polytheism is exactly one which is seen in traditional salafist thought. This interpretation is rooted in the thought of major Salafi figures like Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim and Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab. According to their thought, any kind of Tawassul, Ziarat, seeking intercession etc., results in polytheism in worship and blood, property and honor of a person practicing them will be permissible. Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab announced all of the people of Najd as polytheist because of considering issues like Tawassul, construction on graves and seeking intercession from saints, and a large number of people was killed for the same reason. He has mentioned the people of Najd as “polytheists of our time” more than 23 times in his book named “Kashf ul Shobahat”. Invitation of Wahhabism during past three centuries was based on the same foundation. Because of this, ISIS behavior is very similar to Wahhabism behavior during past few centuries. When Wahhabism occupied the city of Medina, it destroyed all the shrines of great religious personalities in Baqi’, and after occupying the holy city of Mecca, it destroyed the shrine of hazrat khadija and most companions of the holy Prophet (PBUH). Tombs and shrines of Muslim are being destroyed by ISIS right now. As blood of the people of Najd and Hejaz was shred in the name of polytheism, today many killings by ISIS are also being performed by the same excuse.

B). Faith and atheism: The boundaries of faith and atheism have been well drawn by the scholars of different sects of Islam. In the meantime, Wahhabism and Salafism due to their definition about faith and atheism, consider majority of Muslims out of faith and as infidels. Such an opinion resulted in considering blood of large number of Muslims as permissible and their killing during past three centuries. Today also the same extremist view about definition of faith and atheism has caused the emersion of Takfiri groups and we see every day killing of Muslims in the name of Takfirism.

C). Tradition and Innovation: Innovation is one of the most used terms in Salafist thought. This term is applied by Salafi groups on a set of activities which are considered as tradition by other Muslims. Celebrating the birth of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), praying aloud after the prayers, building dome and minaret on the graves, and many other acts are considered innovation by extremist Salafis which must be encountered. This deviant interpretation has also brought a lot of damage for Muslims and today ISIS is using it as a tool to confront the Muslims.

  1. Modern intellectual foundations

Here the phrase “modern” doesn’t refer to its term meaning which is applied on the western civilization and its achievements, but its literal meaning, i.e. “new” is meant. The sense that some ISIS bases are drawn from contemporary scholars of the Muslim world and that’s why it’s necessary to consider contemporary Muslim scholar’s thought to understand them.

In the meantime, it must not be forgotten that causes of ISIS charm are rooted more in its modern foundations than its traditional foundations. Evidence of this claim is that despite the very efforts of Wahhabism during last three centuries, the Wahhabi thinking among Muslims remained in minority, and despite too much spending it didn’t succeeded to absorb much audience among the Muslim masses. On the other hand, a large number of books have been written by great Muslim scholars against this extremist viewpoint.

Another point that should not be forgotten is the fact that modern ideas contrary to traditional ideas also contain political and social aspects. In other words, while traditional thinking of ISIS can be considered under beliefs and theology discussions, modern beliefs of this thinking can also be considered in political and social viewpoints and in addition to political scholars, scholars dealing the field of politics must also criticize these beliefs seriously.

ISIS presents its intellectual foundations in the form of eight steps and all of them are withdrawn from foundations and viewpoints of contemporary scholars. As we noted deviation in Salafist interpretation from concepts in its traditional foundations, this section also consists of many deviant viewpoints of contemporary Muslim scholars. In other words, it can be said that ISIS has used these concepts for its interests and has presented meanings contrary to the real meanings.

These foundations, while each of them is also considered as a single stage of ISIS movement, are as follows:

  1. Ignorance: The concept of ignorance was first seen in the thought of Syed Abul A’la Maududi, who divided ignorance into different types. Syed Qutb has taken this concept from Syed Abul A’la Maududi, but expanded it, and because he believes in the unity of sovereignty[2] so consider all of the communities as ignorant. Syed Qutb and his brother Muhammad Qutb have mentioned and explained different aspects of this ignorance in the book “Jahiliyat al-Qarn al-`Ishrin (Jahiliyya of the Twentieth Century) ”.
  2. Migration: Migration is one of those concepts which have been considered by Syed Qutb. He while introducing the world community as an ignorant community, presents Jihad and Migration as a solution to way out of this ignorance. On the basis of Syed Qutb’s thought, a group named “Al-Takfir wa al-Hijra” was formed in Egypt. The members of this group excommunicated Egyptian society and established their own small community in the suburbs by leaving Cairo. According to the claim of ISIS, a Muslim should migrate from ignorant community and enter Muslim community. Such an idea provides the opinion of migration towards Syria and Iraq for the youth. In other words, a young man exhausted from the world of technology and appearances of corruption and injustice is simply attracted towards such an opinion.
  3. Enjoining good and forbidding evil: Enjoining good and forbidding evil is one of the important teachings of Islam which has its own specific conditions and characteristics, but ISIS has misused this teaching very much. Misuse of this teaching by ISIS can be studied at two levels:

First: Domestic level: In the meaning that ISIS after dominating the occupied territories, adopts severely the ruling of terror and fear in its opinion to apply enjoining good and forbidding evil, which are called Hisba matters. Forcing shops to close during prayer, making too many restrictions for women and ladies, implementing Islamic rulings and “hodoud” publicly etc., are some examples of practicing these teachings at the domestic level.

Second: Foreign level: In this level, persons who have migrated to self-styled Islamic state must think about implementation of enjoining good and forbidding evil in other regions. The difference between Islamic point of view and of ISIS is that ISIS considers use of force and coercion during invitation as legitimate which results in the start of fourth level.

  1. Jihad: Although primary jihad has no such place in Islamic thought and almost all of the battles of the holy Prophet (PBUH) were defensive jihad, ISIS gives special importance also to primary jihad and believes that war should be used as a tool to invite others towards ISIS Islam. Their motto in this area is that “growth and spread of religion is by the book which guides and by sword which helps”. On this basis ISIS believes that war and jihad must be performed for the guidance of human being and that war is must against all. History of the concept of jihad in contemporary scholars is related with Syed Qutb and after him with Abdul Salam Faraj. Abdul Salam Faraj has considered the concept of jihad in Islam in his book “alFarida al-Gha’iba”. He mention jihad as a forgotten duty. This book is considered as a manifesto for jihadist groups. Meanwhile, ISIS uses the concepts of nearly enemy and far enemy to justify its war against Muslims. When they are questioned that why don’t you fight against Israel which have occupied Islamic territories? They reply that Muslims are nearly enemy, and until the nearly enemy is present, turn to the far enemy doesn’t reach.
  2. Savagery: Unlike previous stages, stage of savagery is the own creation of ISIS and before it the creation of Abu Mus’ab al-Zarqawi. Abu Mus’ab al-Zarqawi believed that the use of force, coercion and violence underlie the development of government and peace. After him, Abu Bakr Naji discussed this point in detail in his book “Management of Savagery”[3] and explained that the condition of formation of a government and reaching comfort is to experience an era of savagery and violence. This violence turns off the arrogant in the community and eliminates the protest and instability. ISIS performs many of killings, decapitations and burnings on this basis. Their goal in performing these inhumane acts is to create fear and terror in masses. These acts are message to whom fighting against ISIS on the one hand and for the citizens of ISIS territories on the other hand that in case of disobedience they will suffer with very severe consequences.
  3. Obedience: Obedience is a stage after savagery. When violence and savagery dominated the society, people will obey due to fear, and this is the stage of stability. On this stage, the society become stable and ground is provided for the social activity.
  4. Nation: Nation (Ummah) is also one of the Islamic concepts. According to this concept, geographical borders are replaced by ideological borders. Borders of a nation are ideological and anyone who is Muslim is considered to be a part of the Islamic nation. According to ISIS stages, nation-building is seventh stage of this thinking. On this basis, ISIS mention a concept named “Kasr al-Hudoud” or “breaking of boundaries”. The cause behind attempts of ISIS based on violating borders of Iraq and Syria and attacking on the region of Arsal in Lebanon is that it wants to replace ideological borders with geographical borders. In a video released by ISIS we see that a group of ISIS terrorists consist of persons having different nationalities tear their passports and burn them and announce themselves as a citizen of Islamic state rather than a specific country.
  5. Caliphate: Caliphate is the last stage of 8 stages of ISIS. All of the previous stages are considered as preliminary stages. The main goal of ISIS is the revival of Caliphate. Because of this ISIS has named the war in Iraq as “war to clean the capital of Abbasid from unclean heretic”. On this basis, ISIS is trying to revive the promised caliphate and they have written many books about it. Books like “al-Dawla al-Islamiyya fi al-Iraq wa al-Sham; Mashrou’ al-Khilafa al-Maw’oud”

Conclusion

As can be seen, ISIS by combining traditional and modern teachings been able to attract attention of Muslim masses towards itself and spread this thinking all over the world. Each of these teachings is valuable in Islam and is considered as main concept. Interpretation of ISIS about these concepts is severely dangerous and poisonous and it can spread all over the Muslim world like a microbe. Therefore, we intend again that intellectual confrontation is also necessary besides military confrontation against this group. Exact identification if ISIS interpretation of these concepts is necessary and then they should be studied by scholars related to theology and political fields and their differences with the real Islamic thought should be explained. This point should be explained well that Islam is a religion of compassion, mercy and humanity, while ISIS school of thought is a school of violation, radicalism and enmity. Dissimilarities between ISIS thought and Islam should be completely explained so that recruitment of youth towards this school of thought may be stopped.

Reasons of ISIS

As a part of the strife against ISIS is needful of the identification of nature and type of ISIS, the other part depends on the identification and awareness of its causes of emergence. When causes of ISIS are specified, by eliminating its causes, the grounds to the destruction of ISIS can be provided. On other hand, as long these factors are not studied carefully, one cannot be hopeful of elimination of ISIS. However, a sole reason of emergence of ISIS cannot be designated but there are various theories described in this relation.

  1. The Western Civilization Theory: It can be understood by looking into the beliefs of ISIS that it is a radical reaction of the expansion of western civilization in Islamic world. It means that as wide the western civilization spreads and makes its stronghold in Islamic world, the extremist and radical Salafi thoughts will also grow likewise. Whereas the feeling of being the cultural values at risk, may also provide grounds to the harsh and dangerous reactions. It can be easily observed by having a look at the behavior and actions of the extremist groups including ISIS that their behavior, which has been imposed on Islamic world by the west, is sometimes in stark contrast to the modern thoughts. For example, it can be witnessed in the extreme traditionalism and opposition to wisdom in Salafi thoughts, while one of the western civilization’s foundation, the extreme rationalism or the self-based intellect: the intellect not attached to revelation emerges in reaction to this viewpoint and its escalation in Islamic world.

Another one from western rational fundamentals is the Humanism or the legitimacy of humanity. It means that the Human being has seized the status of God after the Renaissance in west while in the words of Nietzsche; the western man has slaughtered God after Renaissance. In this case, the entire world is defined as based on Human being where the Human being is the center of existence. Whereas in Salafi thoughts, Human being has no status and all the things belong to Allah. So human being easily sacrifices his life and property. The suicide missions, themselves indicate such an attitude.

However where the material and worldly pleasures are being admired in western civilizations while all the material resources are being considered genuinely for the worldly comfort of Human being, there is no space for it in the extremist Salafi thought and it has no status in front of the spiritual pleasures. Nevertheless the spirituality which is defined in ISIS thoughts is a deviant spirituality. That’s why the first enemy in the thoughts of the groups like al-Qaeda and ISIS is the westerns whereas their threats are much greater towards the western world.

  1. The Theory of the Islamic Plot against Islam: From another point of view, the growth and expansion of extremism and the emergence of extremist and Takfiri (excommunicating) groups in its result, is the outcome of a plot named as the Islam against Islam. This plot, which is considered as the third wave of Islamophobia and anti-Islam prejudice[4], is against the growth and expansion of Islam especially in Europe and America. In other words, just as Esposito says: Islamic growth is even more than Christianity in West which shows the reality that the borders of Islam are greatly being expanded. Based on this theory, the enemies of Islam, despite entering themselves directly in the war against Muslims, they are using the Muslims themselves to strike the Muslims which is being witnessed in the circumstances of Syria, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan and other parts of Islamic world. One beheads other while calling Allah whereas the one, who is being beheaded, is also calling Allah. This plot not only ruins the economic, social and political fundamentals of Muslim countries but it has also played a great role in Islamophobia and anti-Islamic thoughts in the West. The fame of Islam has been changed into a harsh and rigid religion due to the proceedings of these groups among non-Muslim communities whereas such thought can be easily noted in the comments of non-Muslims.

The witness which the claimants of this theory provide is the dual standard policy in front of these groups. For example, from one hand America strongly shows itself as the opponent of ISIS and creates a coalition against ISIS while on other hand it never performs any solemn operation to destroy ISIS. It is in such a circumstance that America successfully defeated Saddam and conquered Iraq in 2003 in a very short time, but how it cannot eliminate a group like ISIS? Various analyses also believe that the early zygote of ISIS in Iraq was placed by Americans themselves in the time of their presence after the fall of Saddam while the wave of insecurity and bomb-planting in public areas was also greatly increased in this period. Abu-Mus’ab Zarqavi is also the sprouted one of that time.

From other side, despite the announcements of international coalition to fight against ISIS, it has always been witnessed that the best weapons and ammunitions are provided to ISIS. All the latest military facilities and as well the full access to Internet for their advertisement and recruitment, show this reality that there is no honest determination to eliminate ISIS whereas the West is using ISIS as a lever to balance the power in the region.

  1. Another theory is of the use of ISIS like a tool. This issue is not only specified with non-Muslim powers, but some Islamic countries are also making use of ISIS as a lever to gain their own goals. For example, it seems that Turkey has made use of ISIS and other groups as a tool against the Bashar al-Assad government and to overthrow Bashar family. It is also proved now that Turkey was also involved in purchasing oil from ISIS and likewise in providing logistic support and transporting human power to ISIS towards which the opposite groups of The Justice and Development Party have pointed. Likewise Saudi Arabia had a key role to expand and grow ISIS and Al-Nusrah Front. The Wahhabism of Saudi Arabia is not only the ideological and theoretical role-model for ISIS and Al-Nusrah Front but the financial assistances of Saudi Arabia and the terrorist groups to achieved its own international goals isn’t also hidden from anyone. Likewise Saudi Arabia has highest number of its nationals in ISIS group whereas Saudi Arabia’s affiliations with the extremist groups in the regions of Iraq and Syria have reached at the point that Saudi Arabia could not hide its incommodity when Zahran ‘Alloush, the leader of Takfiri group Al-Nusrah Front, got killed. Although the fire of Takfiri groups has today engulfed Saudi Arabia itself too.
  2. The theory of Hunger and Social Class Divisions: No doubt, the problem of class divisions and injustice plays major role in formation of terrorist and Takfiri groups. In other words, the financial problems, cultural poverty and deep social divisions spark the formation of extremis and Takfiri groups. As the economic prosperity rises and social divisions decrease the scope for recruitment and conscription also for extremist groups also decreases.

Conclusion

Military confrontation against ISIS is only a part of solving the problem of ISIS. What’s more important is to counter this thought and to cut its roots. ISIS today is using intellectual attractions more than material charms to recruit forces and it was somewhat successful in this job. But unfortunately, the current world is only thinking about military solution to end ISIS temptation. Whereas if ISIS temptation end in Iraq and Syria but its seeds have been spread all over the world and presence of terrorists with different nationalities in this group is a strong argue on this claim. Therefore, we must not be negligent about intellectual confrontation against ISIS. We tried in this article to explain the intellectual fundamentals of ISIS by sources related to ISIS so that experts in the fields of politics and theology may criticize these foundations.

As well as finding reasons and eliminating causes of ISIS life plays important role in fighting this deadly temptation. We tried in this area also to report some analyses about reasons of ISIS so that the scholars by considering it more deeply and accurately pay more attention on causes of creation and growth of ISIS and provide ground for destroying ISIS by eliminating its causes.

Meanwhile, it is reality that regional countries like I.R.Iran, I.R.Pakistan, Afghanistan, middle, central and north Asian countries, all are at risk of this significant danger and if experts and scholars of this region didn’t find any scientific and exact solution for this problem, it will spread all over the region.


[۱] He in the beginning of Syria crisis used to say addressing his opponents that we will put your meat into meat grinder and throw it before dogs, but later he was forced to leave Syria and escape to Qatar.

[۲] According to the thought of Syed Qutb, base of monotheism is unity of sovereignty. That is, ruler of a community must be completely Islamic, and because there is no such Islamic ruler is present in the world, nor in muslim countries and not in non-muslim countries, so all these countries are suffered with ignorance.

[۳] . Idaratut tawahhush

[۴] The first wave of anti-Islam prejudice was formed in the decade of seventy with harass against the sacred beliefs and teachings of Islam, whereas its peak was the compilation of the book “The Satanic Verses” from Salman Rushdie. But this plot caused more unity among Muslims against anti-Islamic elements. The second wave began in the end of twentieth century and the first decade of twenty first century to oppose Islam through the visual and artistic attractions in the form of caricatures of the holy person of Holy Prophet (PBUHH), whereas its peak was the compilation of a movie named “Muslim’s Innocence”. This plot also got in vain whereas it united the Muslims more and more practically. The third attempt to hit the glory of Islam and Muslims was through the Muslims themselves which became unfortunately successful to some extent.

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